Year VI, Special Edition, August 2019.

Contemporary dilemmas: Education, Politics and Values journal is pleased to present to its readers and collaborators the Special Edition August 2019, where 71 articles are published, results of the scientific production of research professors from 10 countries such as Czechoslovakia, Iran, Kazakhastan, Libya, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, Poland, Russia, Ukraine. Thank you very much for your preference with our journal. 

1. TITLE: Postgraduate pedagogical education: trends and risks. AUTHOR: Valentyna Sahuichenko. ABSTRACT: The author proceeds from dissatisfaction vision of organizational culture of pedagogical work in the system of postgraduate pedagogical education, most often focuses on search of alternative forms of work, and not on strengthening of efficiency of pedagogical activity of scientific and pedagogical workers, mistakenly comes down to ratings by results of progress of pupils and students. The relevance of a research reinforced by the need of search of optimization of pedagogical work during educational reforms. KEY WORDS: education, philosophy, culture, society, development. UKRAINE.

2. TITLE: The university teacher as subject and object of educational innovation. AUTHOR: Nivia T. Álvarez Aguilar. ABSTRACT: Even when educational models are imposed every day, the teacher continues to be a decisive factor in achieving this purpose. Innovation must begin with the teacher. The objective of this article is to analyze the place of the university teacher in educational innovation from the perspective of actively considering their involvement. The critical analysis was complemented by the use of a survey of teachers of engineering careers. The results indicate that teachers are sensitized with the need to innovate but show a somewhat limited understanding of it. They emphasize some factors that hinder educational innovation, which coincide with what was raised by other authors. KEY WORDS: university teacher, educational innovation, teaching and innovation. MEXICO.

3. TITLE: Non-Educational Functions of Private Tutoring. AUTHOR: Joanna Wnek-Gozdek. ABSTRACT: The study refers to the theories by E. Durkheim and R. C Merton. Identifying the non-educational factors that contribute to the popularity of tutoring will enable implementation of more efficient activities to reduce it. A qualitative strategy was adopted with individual interviews to 15 private tutors and statements made by teachers and parents in online media messages were analyzed. The results show that private tutoring plays many, not always recognized roles, and private tutors fill the gaps in school and family systems. The development of tutoring market is actually supported by all the participants of the educational process: parents, schoolteachers and tutors. We need to monitor the mechanisms and conditions which sustain the phenomenon of private teaching. KEY WORDS: education, private tutoring, hidden functions, tutor, parents. POLAND.

4. TITLE: Genesis of the formation and development of regional scientific-educational groups. AUTHORS: Visita A. Khamzatov, Ira H. Kerefova, Svetlana F. Kokova, Leyla A. Maysigova, Lidiya A. Bekbotova. ABSTRACT: During the past few years, the national higher education system of the Russian Federation has undergone significant reform, requiring  new mechanisms for the interaction of structural elements for the federal and territorial education systems and the expert community in the sectors of national economy and the most complete satisfaction of a specialized labor market needs. Special tools were developed for professional and public accreditation of educational programs, advanced professional and educational standards were introduced, but it is necessary to organize the integration interaction of science, education and business subjects, remaining unsolved problems of scientific result commercialization for regional high-tech systems, which act as elements and form the subsystems of the national innovation system in the regions of the Russian Federation. KEY WORDS: competition, innovative economy, integration, research and education cluster, innovation infrastructure. RUSSIA.

5. TITLE: Innovative approaches in polytechnic education. AUTHORS: Gizatulla Imashev, Bayan O. Kuanbayeva, Bakit T. Barsay, Aigul M. Uteshkaliyeva, Mairagul T. Rakhmetova, Anar A. Tumysheva, Aiken A. Kassymova, Asset B. Turkmenbayev. ABSTRACT: The article is devoted to the creation of a model of a methodical system and conceptual ideas of polytechnic education in the process of teaching physics in high school at the present stage. On the basis of the scientific and pedagogical analysis of the relevant literature and regulatory documentation on the problem under study, the didactic stages and directions for the modernization of polytechnic education in Kazakhstan are identified and substantiated. The socio-economic and pedagogical principles of modeling organizational forms and methods that ensure the effectiveness of polytechnic education in physics under the conditions of modern production are determined. KEY WORDS: modern production, scientific and technical progress, physics and technology, polytechnic education, learning process. KAZAKHSTAN.

6. TITLE: Education in relation to People and the World. AUTHOR: Ewa Sliwa. ABSTRACT: This work focuses on the education of the young generation in the context of changes taking place in the social, political, cultural and climatic realities of the world. Young people's statements regarding the events they see as important and which shape their generational identity, have been analyzed. The phenomena and processes were discussed, selected according to the criterion of significance for shaping the profile of the young generation of Poles. The events were selected based on the rankings presented by different media and social networks in the Internet. Young people identified the events they considered most important in a given year. The next step was to ask randomly selected youth representatives to give their opinions about the selected phenomena. KEY WORDS: education, generation, identity, generational experience. POLAND.

7. TITLE: Intentional modalities and value attractors of student youth self-realization in the university educational environment. AUTHORS: Elena N. Shutenko, Andrey I. Shutenko, Marina A. Kanishcheva, Anna V. Lokteva. ABSTRACT: The research was aimed at defining the conditions and phenomenological characteristics of students’ self-realization. The methodology of sociocultural determination of personality development underlay it. Students’ mainstream aspirations reflecting their self-realization modalities (cognitive, communicative, creative, pragmatic, influence-projecting, risk-taking, dedicative, fame-achieving) were revealed. The method of conceptual-theoretical reconstruction of value space of education helped the authors to present a construct of students’ self-realization value attractors. This value framework encompasses seven interlinked resources of sociocultural experience: sociocentric, theocentric, anthropocentric, ethnocentric, nature-centric, culture-centric, knowledge-centric. The study leads to the conclusion about the need for holistic development of students in the education system. KEY WORDS: higher school, students’ self-realization, educational process, modalities and value attractors of self-realization. RUSSIA.

8. TITLE: Analysis of country appeal for foreign students. AUTHORS: Svetlana Ashmarina, Elena Kandrashina, Yuri Tokarev, Airat Izmailov, Ekaterina Nikulina, Valentina Mantulenko. ABSTRACT: Inclusion of the ratio of foreign students in the rating system characterizing quality of education at the level of individual universities and entire countries can lead to the fact that increase in this rating is considered as an end in itself. The existence of such a problem determines the relevance of the study. The research is based on the hypothesis that the ratio of foreign students is qualitative index of education and the level of development of the country’s education system as a whole. Study included data on 39 countries included in the statistical, expert databases. KEY WORDS: quality of education, ratio of foreign students, educational appeal of countries, comparative analysis, nonparametric methods of statistics. RUSSIA.

9. TITLE: Psychological and pedagogical aspects of teaching natural sciences. AUTHORS: Nurgul Nurmukhanbetova, Ayazhan Tauzhanova, Aigul Kurmanbayeva, Nurgul Temirbekova, Idia Fakhrudenova, Aigerim Zhaksybayeva, Saule Makhanova, Aina Khamitova. ABSTRACT: Modern education is being modernized and renewed. The goals, priorities, content, and values of primary general education are changing. There is a shift from the formation of knowledge, skills, and abilities to the development of children’s personality and abilities. These changes affected the natural science education in elementary school. When teaching natural science in elementary school, the task of developing the personality of elementary schoolchildren, the formation of the foundations of their scientific thinking in the field of nature and society, and learning how to understand the world around, comes to the fore. It is possible to form these qualities when taking into account the psychological and pedagogical aspects of teaching natural science to primary schoolchildren. KEY WORDS: natural sciences, primary education, psychological conditions, pedagogical approaches, updated educational content. KAZAKHASTAN.

10. TITLE: Weekly dynamics of primary schoolers’ task performance in the Advanced Motor Mode. AUTHORS: Asiet A. Guchetl, Asya A. Bekhoeva, Julieta B. Kumakhova, Galina A. Kyarova, Fatima A. Tuguz. ABSTRACT: The results of the study of weekly dynamics of task performance of 4th grade schoolers indicate that the introduction of additional dance classes and increasing the amount of physical activity contributes to the formation of better adaptation of pupils to the study, although at the same time the developing fatigue during the school week is not completely mitigated, but it becomes less to a certain extent. KEY WORDS: task performance, advanced motor mode, levels of performance, children of primary school age, ecology. RUSSIA.

11. TITLE: Dichotomical Indicators of Educational Information Compatibility Modeling. AUTHORS: Vladimir Pavlovich Klochkov, Elizabeth Afanasevna Barakhsanova, Irina Vladimirovna Krotova, Galina Raisovna Rybakova, Tatiana Viktorovna Malkova. ABSTRACT: The relevance of the research is associated with the search for a nonstandard system of innovative indicators for modelling educational information compatibility. The main purpose of this article is to describe the dichotomous properties of educational information compatibility modelling. The practical and theoretical significance of the presented research lies in the fact that it shows the expediency and order of application of dichotomies for the selection of parameters of educational texts, taking into account the multidimensionality of the properties of the information presented in the texts. The formalization of the compatibility related properties of the studied object is conducted according to the selected parameters, which is a prerequisite for the development of computer programs applied for modelling compatibility of the educational information. KEY WORDS: dichotomy, modelling, indicator, compatibility, educational information. RUSSIA.

12. TITLE: Application of Fairclough Critical Language Awareness in Reading Textbook. AUTHORS: Zahra Rubab, Syed Kazim Shah, Amna Arshad. ABSTRACT: The research major purpose is to investigate the textbook of reading by applying Fairclough (2002) approach of critical language awareness (CLA) on the content, exercises and questions of the textbook. Research questions belong to Fairclough (2002) suggested stages of CLA with data collection from reading textbooks analyzed with reference to the stages of reading process on the book title: Reading reflection and writing by Smazler. Findings reveal that smalzer (1996) textbook material does not follow the stages of CLA except of stages of reflection and systemization. Future implications are related to the approach of CLA beneficial for teachers, students and curriculum designer to understand the complex and dynamic connection of reading process and create new ways to develop and reconstruct the curriculum. KEY WORDS: Critical Language Awareness (CLA), textbook, reading process. PAKISTAN.

13. TITLE: An analysis of the role of native language as a facilitating source in the teaching of Second Language. AUTHORS: Noreen Saba, Mamuna Ghani. ABSTRACT: This research emphasizes the importance of preserving L1 while teaching L2 and to see what important role the beliefs of teachers play in this regard. A questionnaire and interview of structured and semi structured nature was designed. The target population was one hundred teachers randomly selected working at the prominent English medium schools of Multan. Experimental method was used with two different groups 5th class (30 students). It was found that the limited and judicious use of native languages while teaching L2 in the classrooms was really helpful. The data was evaluated with statistical charts and tabulation. The conclusion consisted of suggestions to make the scenario of second language learning better for Pakistani institutions. The article includes recommendations for teachers, authorities and parents. KEY WORDS: preserving L1 while teaching L2, English medium schools of Multan, experimental method, Pakistani educational institutions. PAKISTAN.

14. TITLE: Learner-Centered English Language Teaching and Syllabus design: An Analysis of the Secondary School Level ESL Curriculum and Instruction in Punjab, Pakistan. AUTHORS: Muhammad Mushtaq, Syed Kazim Shah, Ali Raza Siddique. ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to find out the learner centeredness in the course syllabi of English language teaching at secondary level in PTB.  The study will also explore the use of socio-cultural elements in the course content of the book of 9th class. For the purpose to evaluate the learner centeredness of the course syllabi at secondary level in PTB, rubrics for determining degree of learner centeredness presented by Cullen and Harris (2009) were adopted and it was evaluated whether the course contents meet the required criteria.  It was found that learning rationale, syllabus focus and learning outcomes meets the requirements of learner centeredness while teacher and students’ role, collaboration, outside resources and assessment and evaluation don’t meet the criteria of rubrics. KEY WORDS: language teaching, language learning. learner centered approach, syllabus, culture. PAKISTAN.

15. TITLE: The role of effective activities of Receptive Skills to improve Productive Skills of ESL learners at University of Agriculture Faisalabad. AUTHORS: Wasim Hassan, Mamuna Ghani, Noreen Saba. ABSTRACT: The article describes the ways in which effective activities in receptive skills may help in improving productive skills of ESL learners at University of Agriculture Faisalabad. The current research will prove very helpful in improving productive skills. It will also be useful for the teachers to find the best possible activities in receptive skills for ESL learners. The data was collected through questionnaire and unstructured observation. The participants were asked to answer the questions based on their learning experiences of receptive and productive skills in ESL classes at University of Agriculture Faisalabad. The research includes the appropriate activities in receptive skills and suggestions for the teachers and students which can bring an improvement in the productive skills of ESL learners. KEY WORDS: effective activities, ESL classes, receptive skills, productive skills. PAKISTAN. 

16. TITLE: Medium of instruction (MOI) in local and non-local languages. AUTHORS: Rehman Younis, Syed Kazim Shah, Muhammad Farukh Arslan. ABSTRACT: The study focuses on the perceptions of teachers on the use of local and non local languages as Medium of Instruction (MoI) from grades 1 to 5 in Divisional Public Schools in Faisalabad, Pakistan, after language policy 2017 which emphasizes Urdu as MoI. The purpose was to analyze the pedagogical implications of this policy. There were 55 informants. The selected Schools were divided into 2 groups for the analysis. Verhoeven’s (1998) Model was applied to analyze the data. It was observed that the teachers showed concern on the use of Urdu as MoI. Some parents from rural areas appreciated the use of Urdu as MoI. However divisional schools in urban areas emphasized English as an MoI for its emerging demand. KEY WORDS: Medium of Instruction (MoI), Urdu language, policy, perception. PAKISTAN.

17. TITLE: Practitioners’ Perspective towards Critical Thinking Practices in ESL Classrooms and Critical Thinking Theories. AUTHORS: Sumera Shan Ahmad, Syed Kazim Shah, Kalsoom Jahan. ABSTRACT: Current research aims at evaluating English language teachers’ attitude towards incorporating critical thinking in language education at university level in Pakistan. By interviews of ten instructors, their perceptions regarding critical thinking was uncovered. Another purpose of this research is to evaluate teachers’ behavior towards conducting critical thinking and how they use to reflect on students’ activities. Study revealed that unfortunately language teachers at university level are working on limited definitions of critical thinking, so true essence of critical thinking is not conveyed to learners which hinders their academic performance and professional growth. Study suggests there is a dire need of conducting teacher trainings at university level where they are equipped with critical thinking strategies teachers can adapt according to their situations. KEY WORDS: assessment, critical thinking, learner, teacher, training. PAKISTAN.

18. TITLE: Representation of culture in English Language Textbooks in Pakistan. AUTHORS: Sidra Ahmad, Khuram Yasmin, Zahra Rubab. ABSTRACT: This study attempts to investigate the “cultural representation” in ESL textbooks. For analysis, Byrem (1993) model has been used in this study. A comparison has been made of all these books to show that these books have their central consideration in representing the foreign culture; except PTB, all the books ignore to give the local flavour of culture in books for Pakistani students. This study enlightens the societal and academic problems which take place in Pakistani educational scenario. It concludes with some suggestions, and by adopting them, educationists can overwhelm these problems. KEY WORDS: cultural representation, textbooks, source culture, target culture. PAKISTAN.

19. TITLE: Measuring Critical Thinking Dimensions in the BISE exam questions and A-Levels by using Perry Scheme. AUTHORS: Amna Arshad, Syed Kazim Shah, Zahra Rubab. ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study is to investigate the level of exam questions of BISE and A-Levels according to Perry’s scheme of intellectual development in order to assess how the given exam questions in both BISE and A-Levels exam. Data for the underpinning research is collected from online sources by downloading past papers of five years (2014-2018) of First year Islamic studies to determine the level of exam questions against subscales of Perry’s model that plays a pivotal role in critical thinking disposition. Descriptive analysis of the exam questions is carried out to determine the frequency of each position according Perry’s scheme. The findings revealed that First year BISE exam questions cover frequently dualistic that is lowest level of intellectual development whereas A-Levels exam questions significantly cover multiplicity, relativism and somehow commitment positions that increases their critical thinking disposition. KEY WORDS: exam questions, critical thinking skills, critical thinking disposition, Perry Scheme. PAKISTAN.

20. TITLE: Material evaluation in English language classrooms at secondary level. AUTHORS: Kalsoom Jahan, Syed Kazim Shah, Sumera Shan Ahmad. ABSTRACT: The study is investigating the assimilation of Pakistani English textbooks with material designing and language learning process. This study takes into consideration the strengths, weaknesses and suggestions for necessary changes for Pakistani English Textbooks. A checklist was developed for textbook analysis, to answer the research questions. The checklist items were related to goals, content and sequence of language skills material: listening, speaking, reading, writing and grammar. English Textbook of grade-9 published by “Punjab Textbook Board” was considered as teaching material. Each unit of the textbook was explored by the parameter of checklist, qualitatively and quantitatively. The results showed that English textbook needs to be revised according to the latest patterns of communicative language teaching and learning. KEY WORDS: checklist, Communicative Approach, evaluation, language skills, textbook. PAKISTAN.

21. TITLE: Evaluating an English Language Textbook: A Study on ‘English-2’ in the light of Communicative Language Teaching Principles. AUTHORS: Muhammad Ahmad, Muhammad Kamran Abbas Ismail, Noreen Saba. ABSTRACT: This study aims to evaluate the ESL content to check its suitability to develop learners’ communicative competence. The study uses content analysis approach to analyze the content of ‘English-2’, (a textbook taught to the students of grade-2 in Punjab, Pakistan), with the help of a checklist devised on communicative language teaching principles. The results reveal some of the breeches between the content of English-2 and the communicative language teaching principles which might make the said book unsuitable to facilitate the development of communicative competence in the learners. Therefore, the study proposes relevant revisions as recommended by the experts. KEY WORDS: Communicative Language Teaching Principles, content analysis, English as a Second Language materials, textbook evaluation.  PAKISTAN. 

22. TITLE: Evolution of English Language Testing and Assessment: Rethinking a Critical Account. AUTHORS: Wardah Azhar, Syed Kazim Shah, Muhammad Bilal. ABSTRACT: This study aims to investigate the suitability of language testing to contribute not only in the improvement of the English language assessment procedures adopted in Pakistan by Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Punjab, but also to investigate its conformity with model of testing. A detailed historical account is discussed through literature review, followed by a qualitative analysis of question papers of past five years of 10th class in the said board examination. Results showed that question papers didn’t fulfill the general objectives of target language, implying more attention needs to be given to the English language testing utilized in board exams, and that testing format needs to be revised so it can stand up to the demands of English learners and teachers. KEY WORDS: language testing, question papers, language assessment. PAKISTAN.

23. TITLE: A Socio-Semiotic Multimodal Content Analysis of an English Language Textbook taught in Punjab, Pakistan. AUTHORS: Kiran Rabbani, Muhammad Asim Mahmood, Samina Ali. ABSTRACT: This study investigates the changes in content and design of Pakistani textbooks in last forty years, traces of these changes in socio-political scenario supplemented by the impact of the said changes on education policy and textbook construction. For this purpose, the study utilizes multimodal analysis model to analyze text-image relationship. In addtion, the study utilizes textbook analysis tool to see the impact of ideological changes in the elementary level English language textbooks. Analysis reveals that the English textbook is infused with ideological agendas. There is scanty alteration in textbook’s layout and design but there is a noteworthy shift of ideological angle. However, it is evident in recent editions that the English books are far more interactive, and images are also increased in number. KEY WORDS: content analysis, ideology and de-ideologization of Pakistan, socio-semiotic multimodal analysis, textbook. PAKISTAN.

24. TITLE: Explaining and Analyzing the Relationship between “Norouz Holiday and Story Design”and Triple Learning Skills of Elementary School Students in Iranian Educational System. AUTHORS: Rezvaneh Amini Golestani, Soolmaz Nourabadi. ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to analyze and explain the relationship between “Norouz Holiday and Story Design” and triple learning skills of elementary school students. This is a qualitative, descriptive-analytic research. The researcher has identified the research components that included the Norouz Holiday and Story Design, leisure time, the relationship between story reading, story writing and storytelling with triple skills, and by referring to the literature and researches done in countries. Findings indicate that leisure time for students is an effective factor in their intellectual, physical and moral development; especially in an era in which modernism, despite the creation of facilities, causes severe mental and psychological stress on students. The results of the study showed the establishment of necessary mechanisms to strengthen the Islamic-Iranian lifestyle in all areas of education. KEY WORDS: Norouz Holiday and Story Design, Leisure time, Triple Learning Skills, Iranian Educational System. IRAN.

25. TITLE: Legal issues for the regulation of higher schools’ transformation in the Republic of Kazakhstan. AUTHORS: Saule Amandykova, Nurbek Khairmukhanmedov, Dinara Osmanova, Researcher Nurmuhamed Myrzataev. ABSTRACT: The author pays special attention to the practical ideas of the higher and postgraduate education systems and reveals the essence and features of the educational process in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Conducted a theoretical-legal analysis of legal relations, formed on the basis of legislation on education and the main directions of its improvement. Attention was paid to the bodies and means of state administration of the education system, given a characterization for the legal status of educational organizations at various levels, and carried out a comparative analysis of legal support of education in the Republic of Kazakhstan and foreign countries. The paper made an attempt to carry out comprehensive studies of the formation and development of the educational process in the Republic of Kazakhstan. KEY WORDS: law, education, transformation of higher schools, autonomy of higher schools, the education system of Kazakhstan. KAZAKHSTAN.

26. TITLE: The role of PC tablets in learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL). AUTHOR: Nadezhda G. Pirogova. ABSTRACT: This paper looks at the ways to use mobile devices to enhance the process of studying foreign languages. New technologies are changing all the time and have bеcome more accessible for students and teachers.  Tablet PCs (personal computers) have recently become very attractive devices because they are halfway between mobile phones and laptops. The article addresses the problem of integration of tablets into the curriculum. The implementation of tablets promotes foreign language learning. However, the methodological changes need to be directed as well as allowing choice and independence. The paper also outlines the key principles of working with tablets in and outside classroom taking into account all their modern functions. KEY WORDS: technology, tablet PC, foreign language, teaching, learner. RUSSIA.

27. TITLE: Information technology in modern education. AUTHORS: Bakytgul Abykanova, Shynar Yelezhanova, Aiman Mailybayeva, Dinara Sadirbekova, Gulnur Turmukhanova, Kydyr Kabiden. ABSTRACT: It is noted that today information technology is the most important factor that influences the quality of the education system. The main prerogative is the quality and level of training of students in an institution of higher education that is the key to the successful operation of the education system. The article is devoted to the use of information technology in the educational process. The authors reveal the possibilities and areas for the use of information technology in modern education. Special attention is paid to the benefits of using information and communication technology in comparison with traditional teaching methods. KEY WORDS: information technology, individualization, educational process, quality of education, actual pedagogy. KAZAKHSTAN.

28. TITLE: Numerical modeling of Circular Finned Heat Exchangers using Nano-Fluid and investigating the effects of different parameters on Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop. AUTHORS: Mohammad Motaei, Jafar Ghafouri. ABSTRACT: Heat exchangers are almost the most applicable elements in chemical processes. In this study, heat exchangers have been studied numerically using nano-fluid. The effect of different parameters on heat exchange and pressure drop has also been studied and the results showed that the increased space between the tubes and the increase in the number of tubes can increase heat transfer and pressure drop. However, increasing the thickness of the fin may decrease the pressure as a result of increased heat exchange; therefore, it may be the most effective parameter to improve the efficiency of the finned heat exchanger. KEY WORDS: heat exchangers, nano-fluid, fin thickness, heat transfer, pressure drop. IRAN.

29. TITLE: Evaluating methods of the technology transfer models. AUTHORS: Saeid Tayebi Meygooni, Abbas Tolouei Eshlaghi, Changiz Valmohammadi, Mahnaz Rabiei. ABSTRACT: The advantage of space technology in providing services to different parts of the country is so evident that in addition to using the technology in crisis management, the challenges of the environment and natural disasters, space and space technology also play a role in managing other potential crises of the country. Space communications technology can fill the gap of communication and accelerate the process of providing assistance and services to the people. In the present study, which was conducted in the spatial industry of the country, 14 industry experts were selected, university professors and the rest of the experts from the spatial industry managers, and the model factors were chosen by the fuzzy Delphi method, and then, the research model was designed. KEY WORDS: technology transfer, technology models, technology transfer model, Spatial industry. IRAN.

30. TITLE: Ways to improve the information security in Wireless Sensor Networks. AUTHOR: Delshad Wasimi. ABSTRACT: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have recently been studied for a wide range of applications in the community. Since the operation of information security in WSNs is the responsibility of the network nodes themselves, the security of the network in this network is more than other networks, on the one hand due to the inherent limitations of resources and the computational heath of the sensors nodes, security in sensor networks encounter different challenges than security in traditional computer networks, and the provision of information security in these networks is becoming more and more problematic. This paper addresses a comprehensive review of how to enhance the security of sensor networks, especially the security of information protocols. KEY WORDS: Wireless sensor networks, Protocols, Information security, WSNs. IRAN.

31. TITLE: Discourse as a means of establishing and maintaining manageability on the internet: theoretical framework. AUTHORS: Mariia Rubtcova, Denis Martyanov, Natalia Martianova. ABSTRACT: The paper is devoted to analysis of theoretical framework of studying discourse as a means of establishing and maintaining manageability on the internet. Data comes from theoretical literature, such as theory of managed space and the methodology of intersubjective institutionalism. The authors demonstrate modern changes in the analysis manageability from subject-object manageability in cybernetics and subject-subject manageability in the theory of political decision making to new version of subject-object manageability in closed virtual communities. The authors made conclusion that these changes led to an increase in the role of discourse as a means of establishing and maintaining manageability. KEY WORDS: discourse, manageability, internet, virtual communities. RUSSIA.

32. TITLE: Mulla Sadra: Her imagination and educational implications. AUTHORS: Omolbanin Mirzavand, Mohammadhashem Rezaee, Faeze Nateghi. ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to examine Mulla Sadra's view of the imagination and the imagined world of science and its examples and educational implications. This research is a qualitative using a descriptive-analytical method using library resources which clarifies the view of Mulla Sadra about imagination, the universe of imagination and its functions to its educational implications. The results of the study, based on imagination, the world of imagination, and the issues related to each one, have ended in the division of the educational process. In this work, the principles of education are based on the principles of Mulla Sadra's philosophical thought about the power of the imagination. KEY WORDS: Mulla Sadra, the power of imagination, discretion, the implications of education, education. IRAN.

33. TITLE: Mythopoetic basis of Sosruko character (by the Adyghe version of Nart saga). AUTHORS: Zinaida Zh. Kudaeva, Marina Ch. Kremshokalova, Diana V. Sokaeva, Gulnur R. Khusainova, Mukhamed F. Bukhurov, Liana S. Khagozheeva. ABSTRACT: The research topicality is due to the one-sidedness of the existing interpretations of one of the key heroes of Nart epos – Sosruko, emphasizing his “solar”, “fire” nature. In this connection the paper is aimed at revealing the most ancient mythological conceptions in Sosruko character, related to his chthonian essence, as well as at revealing the sacral, divine nature of the character within the sphere of perception of the preceding epic tradition and cosmogonic conceptions, corresponding by stage to the period of chthonian gods’ omnipotence. The paper applies systemic approach combining the structural-semiotic, historical-cultural and comparative-historic methods, which enables to comprehensively research the epic personage in the structural-semiotic aspect, in the context of his stage development and comparative-typological characteristics. KEY WORDS: epos, Nart saga, Sosruko, symbolism, deity. RUSSIA.

34. TITLE: Bilingualism in the modern Karachay-Balkar poetry. AUTHORS: Rauzat Abdullakhovna, Kerimova, Zarema Iskhanova, Saydyevna. ABSTRACT: The paper studies bilingualism issues in the modern Karachay and Balkar poetry. Tendencies and particularities have been revealed within the poetic discourse. Researches have been conducted on the Russian language poetry that has been created by authors, whose creative maturity occurs during the post-Perestroika period, and by new generation poets who embarked on a creative path at the turn of 21st century. Referring to the Karachay and Balkar poetry, it is necessary to clarify that influenced by interaction of two linguistic cultures, it represents two world-vision realities: the national-specific and cross-cultural, multi-ethnic. National artists bring into their Russian language works elements of domestic mentality, problematics, psychologism, emotionality, previously polished by the best samples of the Karachay and Balkar literature. KEY WORDS: modern Karachai and Balkar poetry, bilingualism, ethnic mentality, diaspora. RUSSIA.

35. TITLE: Imāmat from the perspective of Hisham ibn Hakam. AUTHORS: Hossein Rezaei, Mohammad Hussein Faryab, Mohammad Ranjbar Hosseini. ABSTRACT: This paper, by using a library method, attempts to answer this question: How does Hisham ibn Hakam, as one of the famous scholars of Shi'ism in the Era of Presence, and one of the theologians of Kufa theological school, explain the teachings of Imāmat? Hisham does not have an explicit definition for Imāmat, but by examining the attributes, Hisham holds for Imāmat, one can interpret the teachings of Imāmat from his point of view: Imam - like the prophet - is a divine authority appointed by God to guide people and to execute Divine rules and obeying him is obligatory and his denial is due to disbelief. Hisham recognizes the attributes of being literal, scholar, infallibility, courage, generosity and being Hashemite from the conditions of Imāmat. KEY WORDS: Imāmat, Hisham ibn Hakam, Kufa theological school. IRAN.

36. TITLE: A critical review of the interpretation of Ash'ari and Ibn Taymiyyah from the verse "Eli Paste Nazar". AUTHOR: 1. Seyed Abolfazl Mousavizadeh. ABSTRACT: This paper examines the basis and method of Abolhassan Ash'ari and Ibn Taymiyyyah in the Qur'anic view of God in the Quranic analysis, and specifically in the interpretation of the verse, "Elides of the Observer." According to Ash'ari, the vision of God without being related to the physicalness of God is possible, and as a result of this verse and the like, the Qur'an in the apparent meaning of them is exalted. Ibn Taymiyyah also, by obtaining the same method, turned to the literal interpretation of this verse and similar verses in the Holy Qur'an and foreshadowed the presence of God. By reviewing these two views, the alternative is to look at the illusions and the sensible intelligences. KEY WORDS: Hadith, interpretation, imagery, illusions. IRAN.

37. TITLE: Challenge of Abolhassan Ash'ari in interpreting God's intrinsic traits and its consequences in the interpretation of "Al-Rahman Ali al-Eshra Estevi". AUTHOR: Seyed Abolfazl Mousavizadeh. ABSTRACT: This research uses a descriptive and analytical method to evaluate Ash'ari's view about the inherent traits of God and follows the result of his views in the interpretation of verse 5 of Surah al-Ta'ah (al-Rahman al-al-Ersh-e Stu). For the purpose of the meaning, the intrinsic traits of God are embodied in three general categories: science, life and power; and, secondly, the evaluation of Ash'ari's views is based on reference to Shi'i intellectual rationales. By analyzing and reflecting, Ash'ari's thoughts are caught up in three basic landslides: a) his thought does not know the central position between silence and speech, and seems to be wandering between obvious and theoretical theories due to the lack of logical basis; b) this attitude, influenced by its cautious basis in the rational presentation of divine attributes, does not provide a consistent, coherent and decisive criterion for differentiating between God and creation, and c) as a result of two previous slips, it is possible to interpret Ash'ari's perceptibility in the interpretation of the verse concerned as a consequential or optional consequence of its basis in the interpretation of the inherent traits of the right. KEY WORDS: likeness, temporalization, divine attributes, Ash'arism, Shiite language. IRAN.

38. TITLE: Development of Punjabi Noun Synsets and Lexico-Semantic relations. AUTHORS: Nosheen Akhter, Muhammad Asim Mahmood, Muhammad Tahir Nadeem. ABSTRACT: This study aims developing synsets of noun of Punjabi Language (PL) in Shahmukhi. This is a corpus-based study. The study has developed a corpus of 2 million words of Punjabi Language in Shahmukhi script for selecting nouns to develop their synsets. The corpus of Punjabi Language was POS tagged and processed through software: AntConc.3.4.4.0 for getting nouns. The list of 1000 nouns was retrieved in English with respect to semantic categories. The developed list of nouns has been further translated from English to Gurmukhi to Shahmukhi using software: Akhar 2016. For the purpose of assistance, Princeton WordNet and Punjabi dictionaries were used in the construction of Punjabi noun synsets. As a result, 5000 synsets of nouns have been developed in term of identity number, word, grammatical category, synsets of noun, number of senses and sentence examples. KEY WORDS: synsets of noun, Punjabi language, Punjabi corpus, translation, lexicon-semantic relations. PAKISTAN.

39. TITLE: Development of Diacritical Marks to Punjabi Shahmukhi nouns and verbs. AUTHORS: Muhammad Ahmad Hashmi, Muhammad Asim Mahmood, Muhammad Ilyas Mahmood. ABSTRACT: The study has been designed to apply diacritical marks to 1000 Punjabi words including 800 nouns and 200 verbs. The corpus of 2 million words has been taken from the different books, newspapers, magazines, articles and novels. Punjabi Shahmukhi lacks any online digital resource to develop different tools of Natural Language Processing (NLP), which will help to recognize the international status of it. Punjabi Shahmukhi has “Perso-Arabic” script and has been ignored by linguists to digitize its literature. The study is significant as it will serve its part in the development of WordNet and will help to develop a Part of Speech (POS) tagger of Punjabi Shahmukhi, digitize the literature of Punjabi Shahmukhi and be helpful for the teachers and non-natives to develop an intercultural harmony. KEY WORDS: digitization, diacritics, Natural Language Processing (NLP), Punjabi Shahmukhi, WordNet. PAKISTAN.

40. TITLE: Corpus Based Study on Vocabulary Profile of Shahmukhi Punjabi Language. AUTHORS: Muhammad Farukh Arslan, Muhammad Asim Mehmood, Shaukat Hayat. ABSTRACT: This research is about the development of the Vocabulary Profile (VP) with the help of compiling a corpus of two million words of Shahmukhi Punjabi. A corpus of Shahmukhi Punjabi was transliterated to Gurmukhi Punjabi for parts of speech (POS) tagging. Corpus was analyzed with the help Antconc. Frequency list and the list of different vocabulary items according to their grammatical categories were studied in the developed corpus. It has been observed that the words of Punjabi language have many different cases and forms as contrary to English language and similar to the Urdu language. Nouns, verbs and adjectives vary according to number and gender. Abbreviations and loan words from English language were also found in the corpus. KEY WORDS: adjective, adverb, corpus, noun, POS tagging, Shahmukhi Punjabi. PAKISTAN.

41. TITLE: Cohesion in Argumentative Writing: A Case Study of Pakistani Essay Writers. AUTHORS: Muhammad Ahmad, Syed Kazim Shah, Muhammad Mushtaq. ABSTRACT: This study aims to investigate the use of cohesive devices and their functions in the argumentative essays written by Pakistani students. The data, comprising of 400 argumentative essays, has been retrieved from ICNALE website, analyzed through AntConc 3.4.4.0 and interpreted in the light of comprehensive communicative model. The results reveal that the said writers use different cohesive devices to establish coherence and cohesion, and thereby, organize the information in their essays. The use of reference items is observed to be more frequent as compared to the use of conjunctions, logical connections and substitutions. The study concludes that Pakistani student essay writers frequently use reference items which implies that directives and referential meanings are the common functions in Pakistani argumentative essays. KEY WORDS: argumentative essays, coherence, cohesion, cohesive devices, information organization. PAKISTAN.

42. TITLE: The Mystical Consciousness in the Persian and the Spanish Poetry: A Comparative Study of Jalaluddin Rumi and Saint John of The Cross. AUTHORS: Muhammad Ahmad Hashmi, Muhammad Ilyas Mahmood, Muhammad Khuram. ABSTRACT: This study is comparative, bridging the mystical boundaries of East and West by way of the poetry of two great mystic poets: Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi and Saint John of the Cross within the framework of Aldous Huxley's Perennial Philosophy. The study compares and contrasts the mystical features, attributes and tendencies in poetry of both poets, discussing the experience of God and mystic's soul in relation to God. It uses Huxley’s four major points for the evolution of mystic path: Higher and Lower order, longing for rejoining and reconnection with the beloved, expressions of feelings of separation and the pleasures of the definite connection with God. The study finds similarities and differences in the works of both poets. KEY WORDS: mysticism, sufism, divine love, perennial philosophy. PAKISTAN - MALAYSIA.

43. TITLE: Modality in an Autobiography ‘If I Am Assassinated’ by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto in English and Urdu Versions. AUTHORS: Ali Raza Siddique, Syed Kazim Shah, Muhammad Ahmad. ABSTRACT: This study examines an autobiography as a literary genre to: find frequently used modality types; know that how translation equivalence is maintained; investigate that how textual shades are drawn; and explore socio-political implications of modality in source (original English version) and target (translated Urdu version) texts. The study follows and redefines Simpson’s model on modality with respect to existing models which explain how meanings are shaped through modality types. Being a corpus-based study, it utilizes Parts of Speech tagger and AntConc instruments for analysis purpose. It has been found that: deontic and epistemic modalities are in frequent use; translation equivalence is maintained at meaning level; shades are positive which express writers’ objectivity towards political events, certainty through proposition, and political power in a society. KEY WORDS: autobiography, boulomaic, deontic, epistemic, perception. PAKISTAN.

44. TITLE: Onomasiological nature of neological image of the Kazakh and Turkish vocabulary. AUTHORS: Akmaral Bissengali, Kalbike Yessenova, Zhamal Mankeyeva, Aiman Koblanova. ABSTRACT: The article provides clarification of linguistic and holistic cognitive image of the world, formed through motivation as cognitive refinement of new use in the Kazakh and Turkish languages. In the close connection of cognitive and linguoculturological principles of neology, special attention is paid to the extralinguistic aspect of new nominations, the motivation is revealed and the onomasiological character will be clearly indicated. In the study, new names generated in relation to human activities in the political-social, scientific-technical and cultural spheres have mainly appeared in anthropocentric paradigm. The communicative demands for defining linguistic and cultural-social processes at the stage of modern linguistics is associated with the process of modernization of modern language consumer's cognitive thinking. Relevance of cultural information of modern society is revealed in the denotative sense of the neologisms used in everyday life. KEY WORDS: new nominations, neologism, cognitive linguistics, socio-public services, onomasiology. KAZAKHSTAN.

45. TITLE: Engagement Markers in Pakistani English Newspaper Editorials: A Corpus-Based Study. AUTHORS: Ali Raza Siddique, Muhammad Aqeel, Muhammad Imran. ABSTRACT: This study analyses and interprets engagement markers (EM) as metadiscourse features in four Pakistani English newspapers. For this purpose, it proposes a new model on engagement markers (EM) as metadiscourse from the existing models. The proposed model has been classified into inclusive expressions, personalization, expression of reader-address questions, asides, and anecdote and saying. A detailed list of engagement markers (EM) has been proposed. The results of this study revealed that the corpus of The Frontier (TF) used excessive engagement markers as compared to the other corpora: The News (TN), Dawn News (DN) and The Express Tribune (TET). Conclusively, the corpus of The Frontier (TF) is more reader friendly because of the excessive use of engagement markers (EM). KEY WORDS: Engagement markers, interactional, metadiscourse, newspaper editorials. PAKISTAN.

46. TITLE: A critical discourse analysis of Prime Minister Imran Khan’s Victory and Inaugural Speech. AUTHORS: Sidra Ahmad, Arslan Arshad, Zahra Rubab. ABSTRACT: This paper critically analyses the victory and inaugural speech of Imran Khan, Prime Minister of Pakistan. Victory speech was delivered shortly after election on 26thJuly 2018, whereas inaugural speech was given after his oath taking on 20thAugust 2018. Results demonstrate that inaugural and victory speeches are showing hopes to masses by the new government; being assured that soon these hopes and promises will be achieved very positively. This research is descriptive in nature, and Norman Furlough’s three-dimensional analytical model has been applied. The study has exposed those agenda/ideologies which have been prioritized by the new government supervised by Prime Minister Imran Khan, generating an insight through results that how government proposes different strategies through persuasive use of language for the completion of such chief objectives/ideologies. KEY WORDS: political discourse, critical discourse analysis, political speeches, speech, ideologies. PAKISTAN.

47.  TITLE: A critical discourse analysis of Imran Khan’s speech at Islamabad on November 30th, 2014. AUTHORS: Farwa Akbar, Samyya Masood, Kiran Hussain, Noreen Saba, Wasim Hassan. ABSTRACT: The objective of the study is to uncover the ideology which worked behind this speech and also to examine Imran Khan’s political maturity, enriched linguistic possessions and his aim for democratic position in Pakistan. Qualitative and quantitative techniques have been used to interpret how Imran Khan pointed out the follies, drawbacks, shortcomings in the issues such as the economy, unemployment and electricity shortage and corruption that has been done in May,2013 election by the current government (prime minister Nawaz Shareef) and by the ex-president (Zardari)”. The study has its theoretical and practical implications. Can Khan halt the country’s descent and prevent it from becoming a collapsed state? KEY WORDS: discourse, ideology, rigged elections, corruption, power. PAKISTAN.

48. TITLE: The status and concept of man from European point of view. AUTHOR: Zdenek Novotny. ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to present various conceptions of man and his status in different civilizations and cultures during the history of mankind. The author focuses the main attention on European philosophical thinking, beginning in Ancient Greek philosophy, continuing in Christianity, and especially in anthropocentrically oriented Descartes´ attitude which becomes even stronger during The Enlightenment period. In spite of the dangers brought by contemporary technical civilization, man still remains the subject of European philosophical thought. KEY WORDS: European philosophy, oriental thinking, anthropocentrism, man, humanism, nature, world. CZECHOSLOVAKIA.

49. TITLE: Predictability of Infidelity Readiness Based on the early object relations, Ego Strength and Attachment Style. AUTHORS: Alireza Agha Yusefi, Fariba Bolouri. ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to predict the preparation for infidelity based on the early object relationships, the strength of the ego and the attachment style in students. The population included all married undergraduate students who studied at the Azad and Public universities of Qom in the 2014-2015 school year. The sample was 260 individuals by sampling of conglomerates. The study was descriptive-predictive and used multiple regression. The findings showed that object relationships and the capacity of ego strength for infidelity to weakness and attachment styles to infidelity predict at a significant level. Insecure attachment can be used to explain infidelity, and those with secure attachment tend to be less prone to infidelity in the propensity relationship. KEY WORDS: Readiness to Infidelity, Early Object Relations, Ego Strength, Attachment Style, Married Students. IRAN.

50. TITLE: The predictive role of family performance in self-efficiency of High School student girls in Iran. AUTHORS: Mahsa Kazemi Miraki, Karim Hamidi Fath Abadi. ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to predict self-efficiency based on family performance in girls of high school student. The research design was a correlational-descriptive study and the statistical population consisted of all high school girl students of Shiraz during the academic year 2016-2017. 150 students were selected by cluster sampling. Research instruments were Family Assessment Device (FAD) Questionnaire, and, Scherer's self-efficacy questionnaire. SPSS software was used to analyze the data. The results of Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant relationship between the aspects of family performance subscales and the self-efficacy (P<0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that dimensions of problem solving, communication, affective involvement, behavioral control, and main performance can positively and significantly predict self-efficiencies. KEY WORDS: family performance, self-efficiencies, High School students. IRAN.

51. TITLE: Elder Abuse in the Family Environment. Implications for Education and Practice. AUTHOR: Jolanta Mackowicz. ABSTRACT: The main objective of the study was to obtain knowledge about the scale and expressions of victims and offenders. The method used is document analysis (police reports). The obtained data presents cases of abuse recorded during one calendar year. The results show that domestic violence against older people constituted 15% of all the reported cases, mostly emotional, physical and economic abuse. Based on collected data, the characteristics of victims and offenders were made. The prevention of elder abuse is based largely on changing the social attitudes and overcoming the stereotypes. This is a long-term task which should be carried out by educating the whole society, starting from the youngest generation. KEY WORDS: elder abuse, domestic violence, family violence. POLAND.

52. TITLE: Determinations of Non-Performing Loans in World Economy, EU, G10 and G20 Member States: Aggregrated and Disaggreated Analyis. AUTHOR: Hafiz Waqas Kamran, Abdelnaser Omran, Shamsul Bahrain bin Mohamed Arshad. ABSTRACT: The objective of the study is to empirically investigate the key determinants of non-performing loans (NPLs) in the world economy and through disaggregate analysis while taking EU, G10 and G20 member states as subsamples. 148 countries with regional economies are under consideration in the period 2009-2016. Panel regression models and pooled equations are examined. The most significant determinants are the lagged NPLs, bank capital to asset ratio, inflation, and GDP growth, except the fixed effect for the bank capital to asset ratio. The effect of lending interest rate in EU members over NPLs is found significant. G20 members lagged NPLs, domestic credit to private sector, and GDP growth rate are assumed significant determinants. KEY WORDS: lagged NPLs, GDP growth rate, EU, G10, and G20. MALAYSIA - LIBYA. 

53. TITLE: Female entrepreneurial activity, motivation and gender gap. AUTHORS: Iuliia Pinkovetskaia, Irina Nikitina, Tatiana Gromova. ABSTRACT: The purpose of the work is to assess levels of entrepreneurial activity of women, their motivational preferences, and comparative analysis of the female and male early-stage activities. Study is based on the analysis of data in 74 countries in 2016-2017, presented in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor report. Research reveals features of female entrepreneurship and the barriers to its development. Paper defines countries with high and low values of the considered indicators. The obtained new knowledge can be used in scientific research, in the educational process in the preparation of bachelors and masters, as well as training specialists in small business problems. The study proposes new methods, tools for the analysis.  KEY WORDS: female entrepreneurship, motivation, necessity-driven entrepreneurs, opportunity-driven entrepreneurs, small and medium enterprises. RUSSIA.

54. TITLE: The concept of administrative responsibility for violations in the field of road traffic. AUTHORS: Kseniya Kovalenko. ABSTRACT: In the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation there is no definition of the concept of administrative responsibility, its interpretation can be found in the works of scientists whose studies are devoted to this type of legal responsibility or administrative coercion in general. In legal science, there is still no uniform approach to the definition of the concept of administrative responsibility, therefore this problem is still relevant and debatable. The article discusses the main points of view of scientists on the concept of an administrative offense, examines in detail the signs of administrative offenses in the field of road traffic. The study of this topic revealed that the signs of administrative offenses in the field of road traffic are: public danger, wrongfulness, culpability, punishability. KEY WORDS: administrative offense, punishability, wrongful act, administrative responsibility, legislator. RUSSIA.

55. TITLE: Exploring the influence of psychological empowerment on work engagement among employees working in knowledge-based organizations: An intervening analysis of employee silence. AUTHORS: Hussain Amar, Riaz Ahmed Mangi, Hassan Jawad Soomro. ABSTRACT: The study examines the effect of psychological empowerment on work engagement with intervention of employee silence among faculty members and doctors of public sector universities and hospitals in Sindh. Relational and intervening influences have been tested using mediation procedures laid down by (Baron & Kenny, 1986). Results suggest that psychological empowerment has positive and significant relation with work engagement. Results have established that employee silence fully mediates the relationship between psychological empowerment and work engagement. Management can use findings of this study to enhance psychological empowerment and reduce employee silence to create more engaged employees in universities and hospitals specifically and in other public sector organizations generally. KEY WORDS: psychological empowerment, employee silence, work engagement, mediation. PAKISTAN.

56. TITLE: The Architecture and the problems of innovations of Fresh Water. AUTHORS: Jafari Haghighi, S, Petrovich, D. V, Dehghan, M, Seif Nashri, S. ABSTRACT: The problems of the influence of freshwater crisis on innovative environmental architecture have been considered in the present paper. The author gives the generalized characteristic of acute global crises faced by humanity, highlighting the characteristics of the freshwater crisis. In conclusion, the prediction of an arising problem and the order for investigation are revealed, as to identify trends in the development of innovative architectural trends in the aspect of their influence on the freshwater crisis. KEY WORDS: Architecture, Crisis, Water, Innovations, Global climate change. IRAN - UKRAINE.

57. TITLE: Relationship of Academic Performance with Perceived Stress and Body Mass Index. AUTHORS: Dawood Ahmad, Iftikhar Ahmad Baig, Namra Munir. ABSTRACT: The present study examined the relationship of academic performance with Body Mass Index (BMI) and Perceived Stress (PS) among postgraduate students’ in Pakistan. The objective of the study was to examine the academic performance of postgraduate students studying in public universities of Pakistan. A total of 362 MPhil Education students (282 male and 80 female) were randomly selected to participate in this survey study, following a simple random sampling technique. The relationship among Body Mass Index (BMI), Perceived Stress (PS) and students’ Academic Performance (AP) was calculated by using SPSS software version 20, the findings showed students’ academic Performance has negative correlation with perceived stress. KEY WORDS: Academic Performance, Body Mass Index, Perceived Stress. PAKISTAN.

58. TITLE: The phenomenon of values in the historical and modern vision. AUTHORS: Kryukov Victor Vasilyevich, Kicheev Vladimir Georgiyevich, Zemtsov Boris Nikolaevich. ABSTRACT: The article offers a version of understanding values ​​as elements of culture. As a fundamental idea, Adam Smith accepted the classical theory of labor value, but with a significant generalization of this idea from the economic context as a special case to the general theoretical level of social philosophy, in which values ​​are understood as products of both practical and intellectual activity. The principle of social egocentrism and interpretation of the main categories of values, versions of the philosophy of history as a process in which the values ​​of culture arise and are modified ​​are also proposed are also considered. KEY WORDS: value, product of labor, person, thing, philosophy of history. RUSSIA.

59. TITLE: Epidemiological characteristics and the incidence trend of brucellosis in Kohgiluyeh County, Iran, period: 2011-2015. AUTHORS: Ebrahim Naimi, Maryam Nasirian, Elahe Piraee, Sayed Hassan Faghihi. ABSTRACT: This study was conducted with the aim of exploring the epidemiological characteristics and the incidence trend of brucellosis in the county of Kohgiluyeh in 2015. This study is cross-sectional examining the cases of 222 individuals with brucellosis (115 males and 107 females). The variables age, sex, season of incidence, year of incidence, job, place of residence, history of consumption of unpasteurized dairy, history of contact with livestock in the past year, the affliction of other family members in the past 18 month and the effects of the disease were explored. The data were analyzed using the software SPSS version 21 and t, test. Considering the high incidence rate for brucellosis in the province, there is a need for preventive measures, especially standardized education in these groups. KEY WORDS: brucellosis, epidemiology, risk factors, Kohgiluyeh. IRAN.

60. TITLE: Retrospective model in Indian Elections 1945-46. AUTHORS: Rizwan Ullah Kokab, Muhammad Hassan, Ali Shan. ABSTRACT: This paper unearths positive or negative effects of the issues related with performance of past governments as well as the interference of the existent governments on the outcomes of elections in colonial India during 1945-46. On one hand, shedding light on the impacts of the governments in different provinces the elections have been surveyed with the spectacle of retrospective approach. On the other hand, the impact of official interference on election results has also been studied. Having used the data collected through the historical techniques, content analysis of archival record and extracting of the evidence, the conclusion has been drawn that the electoral rhetoric remained filled with the claims and blames on the performance of previous governments. KEY WORDS: colonialism, elections, government’s performance, official interference, voters’ choice. PAKISTAN.

61. TITLE: Russia-China cooperation in the Arctic: Problems and Prospects. AUTHORS: V. Perskaya, V. Remyga, N. Revenko, A. Ogryzov, L. Krasavina. ABSTRACT: The authors propose the international cooperation in the Arctic as the most important area of international cooperation based on compliance with and development of international law on an agreed basis. The partnership for matching the initiatives One Belt, One Road and the Greater Eurasian space is also emphasized. The White Paper, published on January 26, 2018, outlines the basic principles and parameters of China's Arctic policy. Chinese side proceeds from the premise that all states of the world should be engaged in the development of the Arctic, regardless of their geographic location, being advisable to consider a possible establishment of a Russia-China consortium for Arctic projects implementation. KEY WORDS: Arctic belt, Northern Sea route, Russian-Chinese cooperation, competition in the Arctic, the Arctic Council. RUSSIA.

62. TITLE: The Role of Armenians in Defending Iran (from 1977 to 1987). AUTHORS: Bahador Mehraki, Abdolrasool Azimiyan. ABSTRACT: How was the interaction and cooperation of Armenians in Iran as a minority group with the leadership of the revolution and Iranian Muslims defending the country during the eight years of Iraq’s war against Iran? How much was the extent of such cooperation and interaction? They were questions addressed in the study. In the study findings, during the eight years of Iraq’s war against Iran, the Armenians as religious minority attended the battlefields along with their Muslim compatriots under the guidance of their religious leaders and the leadership of Imam Khomeini. As important result of the study, if all the groups in society, regardless of their religious differences, personal and factional interests are united under a wise leadership, they can well stand up against the belligerent enemies, not matter how powerful they are, and defeat them. KEY WORDS: Armenians, Muslims, sacred defense, assistance and cooperation, religious differences. IRAN.

63. TITLE: Ijtihad and Government from the Shia Viewpoint. AUTHORS: Bahador Mehraki, Abdolrasool Azimiyan. ABSTRACT: From Shiite scholars’ perspective, who is responsible for leadership and rule of Muslims during the Occultation? What is the scope of his duties and powers? They were main questions addressed in the study. Findings determine three dominant views: first, the governance is only the right of the infallible Imam, and no one else has the right to be in this position; second, the king's monarchy is recognized and the role of the jurists is only limited to holing the religious and judicial positions; third, governance and the administration of social and political affairs of Muslims are considered to be the duties of the just jurists and they should form a government. This descriptive-analytical study indicated that the establishment of a government in the Islamic society is necessary for the institutionalization and realization of scientific jurisprudence in practice. KEY WORDS: Shiite, Ijtihad, Jurisprudence, Constitutional Government. IRAN.

64. TITLE: Islamic Republic of Iran Criminal Policy in addressing Air Pollution. AUTHORS: Manzar Karimi, Ali Mashhadi, Mohammad Barani. ABSTRACT: This study describes air pollution crimes in accordance with the Clean Air Act of the year 96 and evaluates a variety of responses in this regard to provide new solutions. The findings show that institutionalizing the issue of clean air, providing ground for conducting platforms, and using preventive and cultural measures to combat the phenomenon of air pollution can be fruitful. KEY WORDS: criminal policy, air pollution mass, responses, clean air law. IRAN.

65. TITLE: The indicators of Good Governance in the judiciary. AUTHORS: Abolfazl Jafargholikhani, Mahsa Majdzangeneh. ABSTRACT: In this study, it is explained and analyzed components in the context of judiciary place and functions related to constitutional rights in Iran. The main question of the study indicates: is there an extent of paying attention to the Good Governance indicators of the judiciary in defining the functions and authorities of the judiciary? A descriptive-analysis method was used and according to findings, the judiciary is required to observe citizenship rights and a fair trial in the constitution and other laws; however, the explanation and formulation of the judiciary functions has not been performed as it should be according to the good governance components. The accountability and supervision on judiciary is far apart from good governance components in the structure of the Iranian constitutional rights. KEY WORDS: Judiciary, Governance Indicators, Constitution, Civil Rights, Innocence, Political Science. IRAN.

66. TITLE: Intellectual Rights in Russia: The Problem of analogy of property rights and the introduction of Subjective Good Faith. AUTHOR: Artem Sergeevich Vasilyev. ABSTRACT: The refusal to take into account subjective good faith in the formation of legal regimes is defined by the authors as possible, concluding that in the absence of a direct establishment of a law on accounting for subjective good faith as an element of the legal regime of an exclusive right, a law enforcer uses normative “surrogates” to achieve results comparable to the use of subjective good faith. Then, the presence of sufficient tools to ensure the proper functioning of subjective good faith in the legal regime of exclusive rights, the authors make a judgment about the inevitability of such an event with the definition of the analogy of the law or the analogy of law as the permissible means of such an event. KEY WORDS: law analogy, exclusive right, property right, subjective good faith, license agreement, lease agreement. RUSSIA.

67. TITLE: Appointment and selection of judges in the United Kingdom, America and Iran and its impact on judicial independence. AUTHORS: Gholamreza Jalali, Seyyed Vahid Lajevardi, Abbas Ali Heidari. ABSTRACT: In this article, we will examine the methods of judging and the impact of those practices on the judicial independence of judges. This research has been conducted on Iran and two major representatives of the Commonwealth Law. We conclude that although the choice of federal judges in United States is a political process, it has no negative impact on their independent functioning due to their lifelong learning. We also find that conditions governing the choice of judges in Iranian law due the fact that people are looking to achieve the position and the position is not looking for them, has made it to follow the employment and employment relationship. KEY WORDS: appointment of judges, judicial elections, judicial independence. IRAN.

68. TITLE: The impact of force majeure on non-contractual liability in Iranian law. AUTHORS: Mohammad Reza Hooshyar, Mehdi Zare, Babak Khosravinia. ABSTRACT: Force majeure is one of the issues that has long been in the Imamian jurisprudence. Commentators of Iranian civil code have interpreted the articles "227" and "229" of Iranian civil law as force majeure. Lagislator in the two abovementioned articles state the conditions under which the obligor is exempted from payment of damages. These articles have mentioned externality, inability to foresee and inevitability as traits of force majeure, but do not impose other aspects, such as the principles and exceptions of force majeure. It was revealed that the Imami jurists have divided the religion of force majeure into two types of general excuses and specific excuses. The verdict in Iran's civil law in relation to force majeure is only complete when the legislator expresses the impact of force majeure on non-contractual liabilities. KEY WORDS: force majeure, non-contratual liability, exemption, compensation. IRAN.

69. TITLE: Public prosecution service as an object of constitutional regulation. AUTHOR: Konstantin A. Polovchenko. ABSTRACT: The article presents an analysis of the particular qualities of the organization and activities of the public prosecution service in the Republic of Serbia after the reform, passed with the adoption of the 2006 Constitution. The main technique of the research was the system method, which allowed analyzing the positioning of the prosecutor’s office in the law enforcement system of the Republic of Serbia at the present stage of its development. As a part of the study of the prosecutor’s office constitutional-legal status in the Republic of Serbia, the author came to the conclusion that this state has created a reliable constitutional-legal foundation of prosecutorial activities. KEY WORDS: The prosecution system, the 2006 Constitution of the Republic of Serbia, constitutionality and legitimacy, immunity and incompatibility of powers of the prosecutor, the State Prosecutors Council. RUSSIA.

70. TITLE: The problem of trade-economic contacts of the Prikuban and the Volga-Kama tribes with the antique centers in the context of military-political history. AUTHORS: Andrey V. Bezrukov, Maria S. Gallyamova, Andrey G. Dorozhkin, Svetlana V. Rudakova, Aleksey V. Tomarov, Svetlana S. Velikanova, Oksana P. Chernykh. ABSTRACT: There is considerable interest in comparing the degree of influence of military and political conflicts on trade and economic contacts of the near and far barbaric periphery tribes with the ancient world; therefore, a large field for comparison is represented by such regions as the Kuban and the Volga-Kama, representing the near and far barbaric peripheries, respectively. It should be mentioned that military actions between those two countries in ancient times did not necessarily lead to the interruption of trade relations. Results clearly demonstrates the complexity of the study of military and political factors' influence on the trade relations of specific regions and tribes, which allows us to identify the most important problems and ways to further research. KEY WORDS: Prikuban, Volga-Kama, military-political history, trade and economic contacts, barbaric periphery. RUSSIA.

71. TITLE: Airport selection in cities with multiple airports, Case study of Tehran. AUTHORS: Ali Edrisi, Rambod Vakilian, Houmaan Ganjipour. ABSTRACT: Authors compare the modeling results of airport selection by passengers of Imam Khomeini International Airport with passengers of Mehrabad Airport (in Tehran) by using Binary Logit Model. Surveys in the form of Stated Preference have been carried out as the interview of the Imam Khomeini and Mehrabad airports passengers. The questionnaires for Imam Khomeini and Mehrabad Airport were 240 and 681, respectively. The results of modeling for mentioned airports were somewhat different. Factors such as experience of using the airport in the past, the age of passengers and their monthly income were significant. Factors such as facilities of the airport and ground access quality were effective to choose the airport by passengers of two airports. KEY WORDS: airport choice, Binary Logit Model, stated preference, Imam Khomeini International Airport, Mehrabad International Airport. IRAN.