Year III, Publication no.3, May 2016.
1. Title: A rapproachement to the improvement of the management function to better the teacher performance in telesecondary schools in the Zone 27, Sector 5, Toluca Valley, State of Mexico. Author: Enrique Jesús Estrada Alcántara. Abstract: This paper aims to present the management function as a key support for teachers due to in the 2013 Educational Reform, the managerial leadership changed its foundations and actions of support for teachers, becoming an essential part for the teaching-learning process. Changes in the current laws and regulations in Education permeates this function significantly. Key words: management function, managerial leadership, 2013 Educational Reform.
2. Title: Theoretical-methodological proposal for the Psycho-pedagogical training of teachers in the elementary school, Toluca, State of Mexico. Author: Sac Nicté López Díaz. Abstract: This article describes a Psycho-pedagogical research to put into practice by this author in the Professional Institute for the Teaching and Human Formation in Toluca, State of Mexico, in order to give an answer to teachers’ issues related to Psycho-pedagogical training. This research enrolls elementary teachers from 1st to 3rd. grade and gives a panorama of what is happening in the educational institution, as well as the research design to deal with. Key words: Psycho-pedagogical training, elementary school teaching.
3. Title: The influence of the Educational Reform 2012- 2017 in raising the quality of education at the Faculty of Law, Autonomous University of Mexico State. Description of possible scenarios. Author: Judith Ordoñez Ramírez. Abstract: The present article addresses research advances with the purpose of obtaining the Doctor in Pedagogical Sciences degree, in which a prospective study of the possible effects of the requirements imposed on the suitability of teachers is done based on the current educational reform on educational quality in the context of the Faculty of Law, Autonomous University of Mexico State. Key words: Educational Reform, quality, education, Faculty of Law, Autonomous University of Mexico State.
4. Title: The teaching and management functions in Telesecondary schools; determining factors to strengthen the path of improvement in Basic Education. Authors: Adriana Carro-Olvera and María Elza Eugenia Carrasco-Lozano. Abstract: This paper presents some of the results of a project to strengthen the path of improvement in the Basic Education. The aim was to identify the functions teachers and directives perform in Telesecondary schools for a) Improving the skills of reading, writing and Mathematics, b) the minimal normality of school operation, c) reducing school backwardness and leaving of students, and d) developing a good school living. The study was quantitative and 67 observation sheets were applied in 29 schools. As a conclusion, the directive and teaching functions have important advances in the path of improvement; however, they require the strengthening of attitudes, skills, knowledge and decisions on behalf of the students of this educational level. Key words: teaching function, directive function, Basic Education, Telesecondary schools, Path of improvement.
5. Title: Configuration of teaching practice in the context of competencies model: A study on primary education. Author: Minerva Camacho Zambrano. Abstract: The reform of basic education in Mexico aims to mediate the development of multiple kinds of competencies: intellectual, emotional, ethical, motor; teaching and learning aspects of teaching practice axes inserted into different educational models that teachers should integrate and develop. The objective of this research is to understand the configuration of teaching practice. Different theoretical principles support them: Constructivism, Multiple-intelligences, Complexity, Connectivism, and the Communicative action. The methodology is ethnographic, and techniques as: the observation, and the semi-structured and in-depth interview. The results showed that teachers do not have an understanding of the current models. It is concluded that teachers are knowledge reproducers and the configuration opinion of the teaching practice corresponds to the traditional model. Key words: competencies, configuration, teaching practice.
6. Title: The Class Meeting, essential guide for achieving education through instruction in Municipal University Centers. Authors: Yuddany Pérez Domínguez, Adriana Téllez Carralero, Tania Céspedes Labrada and Alexi Lemes Pérez. Abstract: The problem of training or education in values worries about and makes the university educational community in Cuba to focus on that. The rapid entry into a new millennium demands a greater efficiency, effectiveness and pertinence of formative processes in the Higher Education, not only in terms of raising the graduates technical-professional level, but also in their moral qualities. This paper addresses the political, ideological and educational work in the pedagogical process of the professional formation in a Class Meeting type of class in the Municipal University Centers with students of the distance learning course for meetings; teaching-learning event, where the teacher in a blended learning is characterized by an interrelation that mostly goes under mediatic forms favored by the possibilities of the techniques of Information and Communication. Key words: values education, political and ideological work, Class Meeting, Municipal University Centers.
7. Title: A Developing Didactic Strategy focused on motivating seventh grade students for the learning of Mathematics. Authors: Yuddany Pérez Dominguez, Leobany Ávila Góngora, Adriana Téllez Carralero, and Tania Céspedes Labrada. Abstract: Studies on the teaching and learning of mathematics in junior high throw that there is little cognitive interest in this matter, that the activities are isolated, formal, reproductive and uncreative. In this research work extensive characterization of the teaching and learning of mathematics is done with emphasis on motivation as well as being aimed at establishing a teaching strategy supported in said developer material as a developer, dynamic process that takes into account the unity of the affective and cognitive, aimed at motivating seventh graders in learning it. The implementation of the proposal corroborated the feasibility of it. Key words: teaching-learning, motivation, reproductive, feasibility, dynamic.
8. Title: Theoretical foundations of motivation in the teaching-learning of Mathematics in seventh grade students. Authors: Yuddany Pérez Domínguez, Leobany Ávila Góngora, Adriana Téllez Carralero, and Tania Céspedes Labrada. Abstract: In this work, a trend historical study of the teaching-learning of mathematics with emphasis on motivation is done and essential ideas about the concept of motivation are taken, analyzing the criteria of well-known authors and the implications in the educational process. The relationship between motivation and personality development, the role of the teacher in the process of interaction of these two categories, as well as the influence of the family are also assessed. The study of students' motives, the place of the study into motives, and specifically, the conceptual and didactic aspects of motivation in the Mathematics learning become results of great importance. Key words: motivation, the learning of Mathematics, personality development, motives.
9. Title: Information literacy and information skills in High School: the case of mathematics teachers. Authors: Edith Leonardo Hernández, and Juan Jesús Velasco Orozco. Abstract: The article shows results of an empirical research on information literacy and information skills in Secondary Education mathematics teachers. Information issues are addresses from the conceptual and contextual points of view, as well as their relationship with state education in Mexico. It is an ethnographic research, which retrieves the perspective of teachers on these two issues in their daily work at school. One of the main findings is to show that teachers, even with their limitations in the educational and training practice, they do have access skills to information and as a result from this, to build knowledge. This represents an interesting questioning to information literacy promoted by UNESCO in the framework of the knowledge society. Key words: information literacy, information skills, education, teachers, mathematics.
10. Title: Activities focused to strengthen the work with spelling in 7th grade students in “July 26th” Urban Secondary School, Majibacoa, Las Tunas. Authors: Proenza Liannis Leyva, Adriana Tellez Carralero, Yuddany Pérez Domínguez, and Antonio Escobar Escalona. Abstract: This work is aimed at developing activities for the treatment of spelling, supporting the evolution, tendencies and methodology of the teaching of spelling, as well as the fundamental elements concerning the Cognitive, Communicative and Sociocultural Approach, taking into account the characterization of the teaching-learning process in 7th grade secondary schools students. The current state of the teaching of spelling is characterized, determining the significant elements, and the proposal is made. The application of the proposal permitted confirming its effectiveness shown in the quantitative and qualitative analysis done before and after its implementation. Key words: spelling, activities, teaching methods, teaching and learning.
11. Title: Correspondence of the Quality Management Model for Higher Education in Cuba with ISO 9000 series. Authors: Lisandra Leal Rodríguez, Regina Reyes López, Lisandra Jorge Domínguez, and Aleida González González. Abstract: With the objective of reaching the goals that demand the society, the organizations tend to adopt the Continuous Improvement Approach through the management of quality of their processes or services, for which the Ministry of Higher Education (MES) of Cuba has designed and implemented improvement instruments in order to continuously improve the quality of education in the formation process. ISO carried out substantial changes in the quality approach that organizations should show; thus, the research objective is to analyze the Accreditation Programs University System (SUPRA) correspondence of the Republic of Cuba, through defined criteria in the ISO 9000 family of Norms. Results show that SUPRA is a robust instrument, fully in line with the new standards, that favour the continuous improvement of the educational process. Key words: quality in Higher Education, accreditation instruments, models of continuous improvement.
12. Title: Working system at “Jesús Menéndez” Municipal University Branch. Authors: Rafael Eugenio Pérez Grave de Peralta, and Lorenza de las Mercedes Hernández Labrada. Abstract: This work was done in “Jesús Menéndez Municipal University Branch, municipality of the same name, “Las Tunas” province in Cuba. A group of difficulties was identified in the management process, and among their causes was the lacking of a coherent working system that would allow the accomplishment of objectives. A working system according to the specific conditions of the entity was applied and the results of its application were measured. From this, greater efficiency and effectiveness at work, the accomplishment of the year objectives, a higher level in the working organization and better quality administrative formalities, better relationships, and better service quality provided to customers were achieved. Key words: System, planning, organization, direction, control.
13. Title: Technology to manage science and innovation in universities. Authors: Mario Adelfo Batista Zaldívar, and Julio Nolberto Pérez Guerrero. Abstract: The management of science and innovation in the universities is important to satisfy the technological demands of society; however, this process presents theoretical, methodological and practical limitations that imply their improvement. The objective of the study was to propose a systemic, flexible, participatory and proactive technology of management for science and innovation in the universities. Theoretical and empirical methods were used, and a study of unique case was developed. The main results were the conceptualization of a studied process, the foundation of their theoretical and methodological platform, and a technology for its management. The application of technology in a cuban university corroborated its effectiveness through significant improvement of results in the evaluated indicators. Key words: management, technology of management, science, innovation, university.
14. Title: Representation of the human interactions in a learning social network by using fuzzy databases. Authors: Fredy Almenares Fleitas, and Alfredo Almenares Muñiz. Abstract: This article focuses on how fuzzy databases can improve the capture of the data in the teaching-learning process that occurs in a Social Learning Environment. To accomplish this goal, Social Networks, specifically the learning ones will be researched and their characteristics will be exposed in order to comprehend the business to model. Databases and fuzzy databases difference are investigated, focusing on the advantages of the second one over the first one in manipulating information related to human interactions. Finally, an example of the application of a fuzzy domain in a Social Learning Network attribute is shown. Key words: social learning environment, fuzzy databases.
15. Title: Development of the emotional competences in executives and their social impact. Author: Roberto López Boudet. Abstract: It has been demonstrated that it is not only worth to have university degrees, but it is much more necessary to have competences that help us manage our emotions and those of others, as qualities that lead us to success in any field of daily life. For this reason, the objective of this research is to make an assessment of the development of emotional competences and their social impact. Experiences demonstrate that the development of these competences is applicable in the prevention of risks of social behaviors, in mental health, in education, and in sentimental and labor relationships. It is concluded that it is feasible to develop emotional competences in very different spheres of life to improve the acting of people in society. Key words: Emotional competences, social impact.
16. Title: Academic improvement stairway with interdisciplinary approach in health technologies. Authors: Tania Rosa González García, María Aurelia Lazo Pérez, and Aimé Isabel Rodríguez Roig. Abstract: This paper is based on a research project aimed at modeling an academic improvement stairway, part of an improvement strategy with interdisciplinary approach to put into practice in the Faculty of Health Technology, a methodological governing center for health technologies. From the use of the dialectical-materialist method, theoretical and empirical inquiries are conducted, and the results obtained from the application will be processed by statistical methods. The results of this research will improve the management of ongoing and continuing education of teachers, technicians and technologists of the Faculty mentioned as well as the increasing of their intellectual production, which will contribute to the construction of the epistemological basis of the technologies in the Health Sciences. Key words: strategy for improvement, interdisciplinarity, stairway for academic improvement, health technology.
17. Title: The citizenship notion in the Mexican university context. Author: Ricardo Ávila Alexander. Abstract: The deliberation of this research work focuses its attention on civic education, ethics and civic education that is contextualized in the Academic Division of Education and Arts (DAEA) at the Juárez Autonomous University of Tabasco (JAUT), México, in order to contribute to the understanding of the limits and possibilities that the notion of citizenship has in university students. In this paper, the theoretical foundations and empirical approaches that support the research done on discourses and practices are shown as elements that constitute the device of civics and ethics formation in DAEA – UJAT. In this paper, the results in regard to the unity of action: University within three areas of analysis (power, knowledge and ethics) that served as a methodological route for the study from the theoretical framework of Foucault are shown. Key words: citizenship, university, power, knowledge, ethics.
18. Title: Nowadays, has the open society got enemies? A look from Karl Popper's work. Authors: Juan Guillermo Estay Sepúlveda, and Mario Lagomarsino Montoya. Abstract: The objective of this paper is to contribute to the current discussion about dangers in which is found the open society, principle proposed by the philosopher Karl Popper, and in our opinion, it is found each day increasingly in vogue against the fundamentalist attacks coming from the East and the West societies. If Totalitarianism was the image of the XX century in subjects as politics and which resulted in the worst war in the whole history of humankind, Fundamentalism is found ad portas of being the image of the XXI century in politics, if we do not combat it with tools that Popper himself handed them over us in his vision about Democracy and the staying of the West and the world. Key words: Karl Popper, Fundamentalism, Totalitarianism, democracy.
19. Title: Chain expenses effects on Palmira families by the perception of security: a first approach. Authors: María Fernanda Palomino Martínez, Andrés Felipe Sarria Agudelo, Luís Manuel Muñoz Cruz, and Maira Alejandra Jaramillo Pineda. Abstract: The article accounts for the development of a research about the perception of safety and its effects in the chain of expenses in the families from Palmira, Colombia. The research describes the role that safety has played in decision-making processes regarding economy, commerce, etc., among the citizens of Palmira. Hence, it is intended to contribute to the discussion about the perception of safety, providing a comprehensive approach from people’s everyday practices, in order to generate collective interest around the potential of its enunciation, while displaying different nuances and contrasts about this experience. Key words: perception, safety, economy, commerce, collective interest, social contrasts.
20. Title: Theory of Quixote by Fernando Rielo. Authors: Ángel Martínez-de-Lara, Walter-Federico Gadea, Isidro Marín-Gutiérrez, Mónica Hinojosa-Becerra, and Francisco-Javier Ruiz-San-Miguel. Abstract: We analyze the work of Fernando Rielo, Theory of Quixote, its Hispanic mysticism. A book that came up while on a lecture tour in the United States and Latin America in cultural centers and universities. Theory of Quixote has two distinct parts: issues and conferences. The first part consists of seven introductory explanatory questions to better understand the lectures are in the second half. The lectures are presented unchanged, as were read. Fernando Rielo used theories of Miguel de Unamuno, Ortega and Gasset, and Menendez Pidal. Among the ideas contained in the work is the passage of the Spanish mystic to the novel or the sight of Dulcinea as the Hispanic image of the Virgin Mary. Key words: Literature, the Golden Age, Dulcinea, Sancho Panza, mysticism.
21. Title: The offer and demand of Psychologist professional formation in Mexico. Author: Alicia de los Ángeles Colina Escalante. Abstract: This paper takes a general look at the different curricula in Psychology from the National Autonomous University of Mexico, since its professional start until today, as well as an analysis of the increase in offer and demand in the psychologists formation in the last thirty years in the country, questioning the reasons for the growth of educational opportunities in Psychology and labor supply for these professionals. Key words: Higher Education, Psychology, offer and demand, professional formation, working market.
22. Title: Socialization of Metrology, Standardization and Quality in the School of Health Technology. From a dialectical-materialist perspective. Authors: Dania Bárbara Duque-Estrada Ferrán, and Blanca Iris Ananías Estrada. Abstract: At present, with the social, scientific and technical development, there are causes that distinguish the health sector in relation to the dialectics between theory and practice. In consonance with the Cuban context, the Ministry of Public Health in this decade has accomplished transformations guaranteeing the efficient use of resources: reorganization, compression and regionalization of health services, that together with the advanced medical technology and the medical assistance-teaching-university extension and research integration constitute fortresses to implement a System of Quality Management in this sector, resulting determinant the application, updating, and socialization of the contents of Standardization, Metrology and Quality. Then, a training strategy is designed to favor the socialization of these contents in educational processes of the School of Health Technology in Habana. Key words: Socialization, Standardization, Metrology and Quality.
23. Title: Design and implementation of a procedure for the management of labor competences in Novatec laboratories. Author: Yaniris León Rodríguez. Abstract: The following research was conducted at the Base Business Unit (UEB) Novatec, which belongs to Medsol Enterprise, a branch of the BioCubaFarma Business Group. The diagnosis of the management of human resources with a view to the implementation of the Integrated General System of Human Capital (IGSHC) envisioned that there are deficiencies in the labor competences, mainly because the labor profiles to favor the competence of Operators in the production of medications who work in key working positions of the working process are not designed. With the design of these profiles, fundamental requirements are being overcome for implementing an IGSHC, which is centered on labor competences. Key words: Integrated System of Human Capital, labor competences, skills, labor profile.
24. Title: Determining organizational skills at the National Center for Biopreparations. Authors: Heidys Lorenzo Jaime, Juan Marsán Padilla, and Marlery Sánchez Díaz. Abstract: The main objective is to determine the organizational skills needed for workers to achieve higher levels of productivity in BioCen by implementing a procedure for the application of the Competence Approach. Thus, competence concepts and its management are defined, as well as the analysis of feasibility of methodologies and procedures for identifying competences and their application in the institution. From the implemented procedure, the results become the need of selecting, assessing and training, taking into account organizational competences such as Commitment with the institutional goals, Quality of work results, and Initiative and innovation in work processes, responding to the enterprise productivity. Key words: Management Skills, Organizational Skills, process, implementation, ID.
25. Title: Procedure for the partial self-control of the Integrated Management System of Human Capital in the Chemical Enterprise of Pharmaceutical and Plastics from LABIOFAM Business Group. Authors: Zahily Domínguez González, Odaysis Torres Leyva, Ana María Negrón González, and María Sonia Fleitas Triana. Abstract: In Cuba, companies try to figure out how to properly manage Human Capital and different authors suggest the need to evaluate its impact on company results through indicators and show not procedures or methods of how to do this, so this research aims: implement a procedure for self-control Integrated Human Capital Management in a pharmaceutical company. From the techniques used, such as survey and checklist, as hidden costs generated by the malfunctioning found were quantified and indicators for monitoring of these, plus 67% of not-conformities were resolved. This will allow superior performance in the company. Key words: dysfunctions, hidden cost, self -control, procedure.
26. Title: Proposal of a work organization procedure in BioCen. Authors: Yoannia Góngora López, Juan Marsán Padilla, Marlery Sánchez Díaz, and Maricel Pupo Pérez. Abstract: The main objective is to design a process of Work Organization at BioCen. Concepts of work organization and the role it plays in the human capital management are defined, as well as initiatives that appear in the literature on the subject are described. Three phases are broken down into steps that are plotted. The techniques used are exposed to and what to do in each one. Key words: Human Resource management, work organization, productivity, procedure.
27. Title: Formation plan for Human Resources agents of a Cuban Biotechnology Enterprise. Authors: Miriela Soto González, Idania Caballero Torres, and María Sonia Fleitas Triana. Abstract: The Center of Molecular Immunology (CMI) is a Cuban biotechnology company whose research focus is immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer, autoimmune and other chronic noncommunicable diseases. Currently, the company plans to continue growing and having a positive influence on the economy and health of the people for which it needs to manage strategically its human resources. Achieving this objective depends in turn on the professionalism of its human resources staff, which should have a comprehensive training, and increase their competencies. The research initially explores current trends in the literature in these subjects. Then, some findings are contrasted with a diagnosis made on the management of human resources in the CMI and an analysis of the state of training of human resources managers. Finally, it proposes a series of actions that will result in a training plan to increase the knowledge of the managers of human resources, which will eventually increase their competencies. Key words: training plan, managers of human resources, competencies.
28. Title: Diagnosis of the Human Capital Management in AICA+ Laboratories Enterprise. Authors: Bárbara M. González Carnel, Yesdaysi Silva Cabrera, and Luis Iglesias Martínez. Abstract: The Cuban Enterprise System has a responsibility to raise labor productivity to meet social demands, for which workers are required continuous high performance with competency-based training. It is at this scenario that Laboratories AICA+ enterprise management develops, which belongs to BioCubaFarma, wherein the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry is concentrated in the country. In the research development, the interview, the survey and the Ishikawa diagram were used, resulting in the diagnosis of the Human Resources Management based on the Diagnostic, Projection and Control (DPC) model. The analysis of the Cuban norms accomplishment level evidenced the stage in which the organization was for its certification. Key words: formation, competition, acting.
29. Title: Diagnosis of the Human Resources management in Bioprepared National Center. Authors: Heidys Lorenzo Jaime, Dayrene Cartaya Díaz, Yoannia Góngora López, Juan Marsán Padilla, and Marlery Sánchez Díaz. Abstract: The main objective is the diagnosis of Human Resources Management in BioCen by the application of the Diagnosis, Projection and Control Human Resources Management technology and the requirements of the Cuban Norm: 3000-3002: 2007; in this respect, concepts of Human Resources and its evolution into Human Capital and Human Talent are defined, as well as a feasibility analysis of the models of Human Resource Management for their use in the entity. From the applied technology, the results show a poor Human Resources Management caused by insufficiencies in Competence Management, inadequate Work Systems, and a poor determining of the complexity of workplaces associated to payment systems. Key words: Human Resource Management, Competencies, Work Organization.
30. Title: The Enterprise Social Responsibility and the Human Resources Management: a possible and necessary relationship. Authors: Honey Piedra Sarría, and María Sonia Fleitas Triana. Abstract: Enterprise Social Responsibility (ESR) involves the ethical commitment to be submitted by companies as stakeholders, to establish relationships between internal and external audiences. They should form a homeostatic system based on mutual respect and development, under the premise of win-win between all involved. The Cuban Standard for Human Capital proposes an Integrated Management System in which subsystems, whose functions are described implicitly, contain specific ESR actions. However, the internal dimension predominates. The following paper aims to show the possibility that the Standard provides for the implementation of ESR, taking as its starting point two international models. Key words: Enterprise Social Responsibility, Human Capital Management.
31. Title: Multiactors management platforms: contributions in the consecution of the integral agricultural development in “Jesús Menendez” municipality, Cuba. Authors: Aramís Rivas Diéguez, Aliek Méndez Bordón, Raquel María Ruz Reyes, Hilarión Rodobaldo Ortiz Pérez, Lorenza de las Mercedes Hernández Labrada, and Liliana Gómez Ramos. Abstract: The Multiactors Management Platforms (MMP), are local spaces in which interact universities, productive sector, local governments, associations of producers, consumers and civil society associations, in order to contribute to the solution of problems that limit the local territory development. The study aimed to analyze from the methodological dimension for the work of knowledge networks, the evolution and transcendence of the MMP in “Jesús Menendez” municipality, Las Tunas province, Cuba. Through scientific methods and research techniques, the results achieved in the territory by implementing such an approach in the productive, social, economic, environmental and scientific dimensions were systematized. Key words: local development, Multiactors Management Platforms, university-company bond.
32. Title: Strategy to contribute to food availability in the Town "The Canistel" the municipality Majibacoa, Las Tunas, Cuba. Authors: José Carlos Escalona Ponce, Adriana Téllez Carralero, Lemes Alexi Pérez, and Yuddany Pérez Domínguez. Abstract: The Food availability in Cuba is one of the priority programs. With the aim of proposing a strategy that contributes to food availability of "The Canistel" town, a research was conducted in the period from February 2009 to June 2012. An element that was present in the selection of this area was its location within Majibacoa municipality, which is considered to be vulnerable to food insecurity. It was assumed a methodology for assessing food security locally in Cuba. This constituted an information base for decision-makers in the definition of actions to mitigate the causes that affect it, which made it necessary to design different strategic options, materialized in an action plan. Key words: food availability, location, strategy, food security and insecurity.
33. Title: Evaluation of chemical and biological fertilization in the cultivation of onion under soil and climatic conditions. Case study. Authors: Leticia Carbonell Labrada, Darlis Reynaldo Rodríguez, and Adriana Téllez Carralero. Abstract: The research was conducted in "José Rodríguez López" Cooperative of Credits and Services, "Majibacoa" municipality, Las Tunas province, to assess the effects of chemical and biological fertilization with EcoMic and phosphorine biofertilizers on agronomic performance of onion (Allium cepa L.) variety Caribbean-71 in a ochric Brown soil without carbonate for two years period (2010-2011; 2011-2012). Blocks design at random was used with four replicates, and bio-fertilizers were applied to the roots of the plants. Morphological characteristics of plants, agricultural yield and its components were evaluated. The highest yields were achieved with the application of the mixture of EcoMic + phosphorine followed by the chemical fertilization, increasing the size of the foliage, size and weight of the bulbs, also the higher profits were obtained. Key words: onion, biofertilizer, EcoMic, Phosphorine, Caribbean-7.